A Crucial Transitional Chapter: The Millennium in the Apocalypse of John. The millennial kingdom in the Revelation of John raises many questions. The history of interpretation gives different and disparate answers on central questions: Why is this earthly kingdom of peace necessary at all before the coming of the heavenly Jerusalem? How should the period of thousand years be understood: chronologically or metaphorically? The article offers an interpretation of Rev. 20:1–10 and a fresh understanding of the imagery of the apocalypse and the meaning of the millennial kingdom. John connects two different traditions and Jewish expectations: a national-earthly and a universal-heavenly reign. The realization of a period of peace on earth illustrates the goodness and the purpose of creation. The millennium represents a meaningful counter-image to the Pax Romana: a Pax Christiana, which is not based on violence and oppression, but on justice and dedication.