Zusammenfassung / Summary
The issue of consciousness is taken up today by different schools: 1) naturalism, 2) phenomenology, 3) philosophy of ordinary language, 4) philosophy of consciousness. 1) Naturalism comes in two versions: a) empirical neuroscience, b) speculative materialism. 1a) is uncontested, while 1b) often strays far from empirical science (Dennett, Metzinger). The founder of phenomenology was Edmund Husserl, but nowadays phenomenology is mostly construed as philosophy of the human body (Merleau-Ponty, Waldenfels). 3) culminates in the publications of Bennett and Hacker. Philosophy of consciousness 4) is still alive (Henrich, Frank). No one of these four positions is without problems but all of them contain some truth, but of such different kinds that we have no overall theory, but only something like a collage.