Zusammenfassung / Abstract
„Papal Chamberlain ‚with sword and cape‘ in the 19th and 20th century“ – The court of the Papal States knew the capacity of „Gentlemen-in-Waiting“ already in the 16th century. From the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623–1644) they formed an own and constant body in the immediate vicinity of the Pope. Their duties in the papal antechambers were coordinated and overseen by the Majordomo. In the anterooms, as well as during religious services presided by the Pope, the Chamberlains fulfilled the roles of secretary, translator, guard or simply company to those, who attended beeing received by the Holy Father. Up to the fall of the Papal States (1870) the adjacensies of the Pope was nearly entirely formed by Romans or at least Italians. Since Pope Pius IX (1846–1878) laymen from foreign countries were also honoured with the rank of a Chamberlain. Those representatives from prominent catholic circles attached to the person of the Pope were a strong moral support to a Papacy which had been caught in political isolation after 1870. This article gives an overview about all Chamberlain who were nominated for German dioceses from 1844 up to 1961. The majority of them belonged to the traditionally catholic nobility. Nevertheless one also finds a couple of more shady characters among them. Excerpts from diaries or letters of single Chamberlains give an impression about the daily duties as well as extraordinary events in the life of those dignitaries.