Economy irresistibly pushes to accomplish its own globalization. Some regard this as a success story of reason, others deem it inevitable fate. – Philosophy from the very first has seemingly advised against the unrestricted economization of life. This article shows how the critical debate on the opportunism of the free market economy already in the ancient world did not merely utter ethical provisions but led towards a ‘philosophical economics’. This resource is worth exploring to ensure rationality, freedom and justice in view of the present developments.